Posts Tagged ‘Old Testament’

About 600 to 1000 years after the Dead Sea Scrolls were the Masoretic Text.  The Masoretes were a
group of Jewish scribes from 600 AD to 1000 AD.  They meticulously assembled and codified the traditional
Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.

The Old Testament was written in Hebrew, a language which originally did not use vowels.  To preserve the
writings, the Masoretes added vowels and diacritical marks above the vowels for correct pronoun-
ciation.  This version of the Hebrew Old Testament is known as the Masoretic Text.

The meticulous care in which the Masoretes edited the text was described by FF Bruce, a well respected biblical

          The Masoretes wrote with the greatest imaginable reverence, and devised a complicated system of safe-
          guards against scribal slips.

          One group of scribes, known as the Masoretes, set its standard much higher than all other scribes.  The
          Masoretes counted every single letter, word, and verse of the Old Testament to preserve its accuracy.

Scholars have compared the text of Isaiah from the Dead Sea Scrolls with the text of Isaiah pre-
served by the Masoretes.  What they discovered was that- even with 600 to 1000 years difference in
text- the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Masoretic Text agreed word for word 95% of the time.  The re-
maining differences were from minor spelling variations.  Other scrolls like 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, and Deuteronomy
do not differ in any way that effects any crucial Jewish or Christian belief.

This shows the care in which the scribes had worked to maintain scriptural accuracy.

Thank you so much for studying.  God bless.



Last week we read about three books of the Old Testament, Isaiah, Psalms and Deuteronomy.  From the time of
the actual events in these books to the earliest textual evidence, Dead Sea Scrolls, was 500 to 1400 years.

Genesis, the first book of the bible and also mentioned in the Dead Sea Scrolls, was closer to 4000

Malachi, the last book of the Old Testament and also mentioned in the Dead Sea Scrolls, was closer
to 0 years.

The Dead Sea Scrolls were scribed around 300 BC to 70 AD and does not mention Jesus or his ministry.  There-
fore, the Dead Sea Scrolls were most likely written at the end of the Old Testament to the beginning
of the New Testament.

A final note:  The Dead Sea Scrolls contain many fragments that are identical to the traditional text
found in the Hebrew Bible used today.

Thank you so much for studying.  God bless.


Last week we read that five historic manuscripts were copied over and over by scribes.  The earliest textual evi-
dence we have are 500 to 1500 years after the actual events.

Let’s compare this to the earliest biblical textual evidence that has been discovered, the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Before we do that, what are the Dead Sea Scrolls?  In 1947, Bedonin teenagers were tending their goats and
sheep near the ancient settlement of Qumran located at the Northwest shore of the Dead Sea (lowest place on
earth).  They found a collection of large clay jars that contained the scrolls.  About 85% to 90% of the scrolls
were written on parchment made of processed animal skins known as vellum.  Most were goats and gazelle skins.

The Scrolls include fragments from every book in the Old Testament except Esther.  Some fragments
describe the first three days of creation from Genesis.  Some fragments describe the Ten Commandments.  The
book of Psalms is one of the best preserved biblical scrolls that contain 48 Psalms.

It is widely believed the Dead Sea Scrolls were written by the Essenes, a religious community of Jews.
The Essenes flourished for several hundred years from about 300BC to 70AD, possibly fleeing when the
Romans seized Jerusalem and destroyed the Temple.  The Essenes devoted their lives to writing and preserving
sacred text.

Next week we will compare the five historic manuscripts against the Dead Sea Scrolls.  How long after the original
events were the Dead Sea Scrolls written.

Thank you so much for studying.  God bless.


Welcome.  Let’s continue to establish who wrote the books of the bible.  I know this is redundant but I think it is
important to establish bible accuracy.

According to Jewish tradition, the book of Judges was written by Samuel.  Several scriptures state “in those
days there was no king.”  This tells us Judges was written after the time of Moses and Joshua and before the first
King Saul.  In 1Samuel 16, the Prophet Samuel anoints Saul as the first King of Israel.

Although the book of Job was about Job, he was not the author.  The author of Job was probably an Israelite, 
since he frequently uses the word Yahweh for God.  We don’t know who the Israelite was, but it had to be
divinely revealed to him.  He received information only God could know.  For example, the conversation between
God and Satan concerning Job.

Proverbs was written by a group of wise men or scribes.

Several scriptures suggest that Ecclesiastes was written by King Solomon.  It was written in the first person,
using “I”.  Ecclesiastes 1:1  The words of the Teacher, son of David, King in Jerusalem.  Ecclesiastes 1:12  I, the
teacher, was king over Israel in Jerusalem.

Isaiah himself was thought to have written Isaiah.  He is often thought of as the greatest of the writing

Daniel was written by Daniel himself.

The book of Jonah (and the whale) is traditionally thought to have been written by Jonah.

Jeremiah was written by Jeremiah.  Jeremiah 36:2  “Take a scroll and write on it all the words I have spoken
to you concerning Israel, Judah and the other nations.

Most of the books of the Old Testament were written by the prophets.  Next week we will read who wrote the
New Testament.

Thank you so much for reading.  God bless.




CONCLUSION 1:  Let’s review our study of the Old Testament and how the Israelite nation came into existence.

Adam and Eve were the first people to live on earth.  In Hebrew, Adam means “to be red.”  This may refer to
the ruddy color of his skin.  In Hebrew, Eve means “source of life.”  She was the mother of all the living.

Adam and Eve had two sons.  Cain committed the first murder by killing his brother Abel.  Adam and Eve had
another son to replace Abel.  They named him Seth.  The descendants of Seth followed the Lord.  The
descendants of Cain did not follow the Lord.

The sons and daughters of Adam and Eve and their descendants joined together and had sex to
populate the earth.  Technically, this was considered incest.  In Genesis, this was allowed because human
genetics were far more free of defects.  Sin wasn’t as prevalent yet.  The chance of birth defects was far less likely.
Fore more detailed information on incest, please read Old Testament 3 – 4.

Following Seth’s lineage leads us to Noah.

Noah was instructed to build an Ark.  Because of mans sin, God destroyed the earth and all of the people.
Only Noah’s family and the animals on the Ark and the animals in the sea survived.

After the flood, Noah’s children and their descendants joined together and had sex to repopulate the

Next week we will continue our review with CONCLUSION 2.

Thank you so much for reading.  God bless.



Fantastic sun rays striking through clouds. Graphic effects are applied for a more dramatic image

Welcome and thanks for reading.

We will study the rest of the Old Testament at a faster pace.  Many prominent people and stories will not be studied.
I just want to give you a general knowledge of Israel up until the time of Christ.

The Israelites are now established in the promised land.

Saul has become the first King of Israel.

1 Samuel 9:2  He (Benjamite) had a son named Saul, an impressive young man without equal among the
Israelites- a head taller than any other.

1 Samuel 11:15  So all the people went to Gilgal and confirmed Saul as King in the presence of the Lord.

Saul was instructed to conquer the Amalekites and all their cattle, sheep, camels and donkeys.  Saul did destroy
the Amalekites except for their king Agag.  He did not kill the best of their cattle, sheep, camels and donkeys as
God had commanded.  Because of his disobedience, God stripped Saul of his position as the king of

Next week, God chooses a second king to lead Israel.

Thank you so much for reading.  God bless.



Fantastic sun rays striking through clouds. Graphic effects are applied for a more dramatic image

Numbers 10:11  On the twentieth day of the second month of the second year, the cloud lifted from above the
Tabernacle of the Testimony.

Numbers 10:12  Then the Israelites set out from the Desert of Sinai and traveled from place to place until
the cloud came to rest in the Desert of Panan.

As the following scripture suggests, the tabernacle was mobile.

Numbers 10:17  Then the tabernacle was taken down, and the Gershonites and Merarites who carried it, set out.

Numbers 10:29  Now Moses said to Habab son of Reuel the Midianite, Moses’ father-in-law, “We are setting out
for the place about which the Lord said, ‘I will give you.”

Numbers 10:33  So they set out from the mountain of the Lord and traveled for 3 days.

The Israelites reached the land of Canaan.

Numbers 13:2  Send some men to explore the Land of Canaan, which I am giving to the Israelites.  From each an-
cestral tribe (12 tribes of Israel) send one of the leaders.

When the men returned, they reported to Moses, Aaron and the entire Israelite community.

Numbers 13:27  “We went into the land which you sent us, and it does flow with milk and honey!”  Here is its fruit.
But the people who live there are powerful, and the cities are fortified and very large.”

They were scared to attack the people of Canaan (who did not know the Lord) and take the pro-
mised land.

That night all the people of the community raised their voices and wept aloud.  All the Israelites grumbled and
wanted to go back to Egypt.

Thank you so much for reading.  God bless.